Tabla dinamica en Excel

Las tablas dinámicas proporcionan un modo de resumir y analizar fácilmente grandes volúmenes de datos. Se llaman tablas dinámicas porque se puede cambiar su disposición reordenando o cambiando de posición los encabezados de fila y columna, rápida y fácilmente.Las tablas dinámicas se utilizan para resumir, consolidar, analizar, filtrar e informar:

  • Resumir bases de datos grandes: se pueden utilizar las tablas dinámicas para resumir grandes cantidades de datos que pueden estar en una hoja de trabajo o en una base de datos externa.
  • Preparar datos para su representación gráfica: Los gráficos basados en tablas dinámicas cambiarán automáticamente cuando cambie la tabla dinámica. Muchos problemas vienen disponiendo los datos de un modo que permita crear gráficos, las tablas dinámicas son ideales para este propósito.
  • Análisis de datos adecuado: Se analizarán de forma adecuada las bases de datos mediante las tablas dinámicas, buscando tendencias, excepciones y problemas. Se puede organizar rápidamente el modo en que se resumen y presentan los datos y acceder a un mayor nivel de detalle cuando se desee.
  • Crear Informes: Es uno de los usos más habituales de Excel, ya que se puede interactuar en la pantalla o imprimir.

  • Lista o base de datos: Podrá crear una tabla dinámica a partir de una lista o base de datos de Microsoft Excel, de una base de datos externa, de varias hojas de cálculo de Microsoft Excel o de otra tabla dinámica.
  • Botones de campo para reordenar los datos: Una tabla dinámica contiene campos, cada uno de los cuales resume múltiples filas de información de los datos originales. Arrastrando un botón de campo hasta otra parte de la tabla dinámica, podrá ver los datos de distintas maneras. Por ejemplo, podrá ver los nombres de los vendedores en las filas o en las columnas.



  • Tabla dinámica resultante: Para crear una tabla dinámica, utilice el Informe de tablas y gráficos dinámicos como guía para la búsqueda y organización de los datos que desee organizar. Para comenzar, haga clic en Informe de tablas y gráficos dinámicos... del menú Datos.
  • Datos Resumidos: La tabla dinámica resume los datos utilizando la función de resumen que especifique, como  SUMA, CONTAR o PROMEDIO. Podrá incluir automáticamente subtotales y totales generales, o utilizar sus propias fórmulas agregando campos y elementos calculados. En este ejemplo, se calcula el total de los datos de la columna Ventas de la lista original en la tabla dinámica.

Dentro de la tabla dinámica se pueden distinguir los siguientes elementos:

  • Campo de Página: Un campo de página es un campo de una lista o una tabla de origen al que se ha asignado una orientación de página en una tabla dinámica. En el ejemplo, Región es un campo de página que puede utilizarse para filtrar los datos resumidos por regiones. Si hace clic en otro elemento de un campo de página, la tabla dinámica cambiará para mostrar los datos resumidos asociados a ese elemento.
  • Elemento de un campo de Página: Cada entrada o valor exclusivos del campo o columna de la lista de origen o de la tabla será un elemento en la lista de un campo de página. En el ejemplo, el elemento Este se presenta actualmente en el campo de página Región y la tabla dinámica muestra únicamente los datos resumidos para dicha región.
  • Campos de Fila: Los campos de fila son campos de una lista o de una tabla de origen a los que se ha asignado una orientación de fila en la tabla dinámica. En el ejemplo, Producto y Vendedor son campos de fila. Los campos de fila interiores como Vendedor son los más próximos al área de datos; los campos de fila exteriores, como Producto, están situados a la izquierda de los campos de la fila interior.
  • Campos de Columna: Un campo de columna es un campo de una lista o una tabla de origen al que se ha asignado una orientación de columna en una tabla dinámica. En el ejemplo, Trimestres es un campo de columnas con dos elementos; Trim.2 y Trim.3. Los campos de columna interiores son los que tienen sus elementos más próximos al área de datos; los campos de columna exteriores están encima de los campos de columna interiores (en el ejemplo se muestra únicamente un campo de columna).
  • Campo de Datos: Un campo de datos es un campo de una lista o de una tabla de origen que contiene datos.  En el ejemplo, Suma de importes de pedidos es un campo de datos que resume las entradas del campo Importe de pedidos o de la columna en los datos de origen. Normalmente, un campo de datos resume datos numéricos, como estadísticas o importes de ventas, pero también puede contener texto. Como valor predeterminado, los datos de texto se resumen en una tabla dinámica mediante la función Contar y los datos numéricos mediante la función Suma.
  • Elementos: Los elementos son una subcategoría de un campo de la tabla dinámica. En el ejemplo, Carne y Marisco son elementos del campo Producto. Los elementos representan las entradas en el mismo campo o las columnas en los datos de origen exclusivas. Los elementos aparecen como rótulos de columna o de fila, o aparecen en las listas desplegables de los campos.
  • Área de Datos: El área de datos es la parte de la tabla dinámica que contiene los datos resumidos. Las celdas del área de datos muestran los datos resumidos de los elementos de los campos de fila y de columna. Los valores de cada celda del área de datos representan un resumen de los datos procedentes de filas o registros de origen. En el ejemplo, el valor de la celda C6 es un resumen de importes de pedidos de cada registro en los datos de origen que contiene los elementos Carne, Fuller y Trim.2.

Fuente: http://www.ayudaexcel.com

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